July 2023

Evolution of Models of Our Stationary State Universe[1]

Sir Isaac Newton envisioned an infinite universe exempt from gravitational collapsing.  Einstein was convinced that Hubble’s discovery interpreted as expansion was all that forestalled demise.  His model of an…Read more

The Misnomer of ‘Dark’ Matter’and Associated Confusion Concerning Intergalactic Phenomena

Science is taught like world history with special deference to the winners of major disputes independent of the retrospective merits of either side. Unlike history, however, science can and…Read more

Required Adaptations to Thermodynamics

Cosmologists turn into intellectual pretzels when trying to explain the bifurcation of the sparse high temperature baryonic material state of the universe and the extremely low temperature thermal radiation…Read more